Clay pipe stem dating
Oswald (19) provides a few important caveats when embarking on a study of pipe makers marks. This included nearly 99 percent of pipes manufactured in the early 17th century, though this estimate diminishes to about 40 percent of all pipes in the 19th century.
And even if your pipe bears a complete mark, identification can be difficult to impossible because of the redundancy of pipe makers initials and the incomplete nature of pipe manufacture lists.
Our primary motivation the creation of this data collection tool is to reinvigorate the middle-aged study of marked pipes and to bring new questions to bear on old collections using new data collection and analysis tools. Because most historical archaeologists can locate a copy of Nol Humes Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America (192, figure 97) within arms reach, this is the most frequently used though admittedly simplified bowl typology. We ask that if you have a nearly complete bowl from which a type can be determined, to use the Oswald 1975 typology, but there is also a field to record reference to another typology, should you prefer. The Archaeology of the Clay Tobacco Pipe, edited by Peter Davey, BAR International Series, 13 volumes 1979-1994. Clay tobacco pipes were an important part of everyday London life from the end of the 16th century onwards, surviving in considerable quantities from archaeological excavations, and commonly found on the foreshore.Many pipe makers marked their products with their personal initials or symbols, some of which can be identified with documented individuals working in London.